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紫外线消毒与四种化学消毒方法的比较

2019-05-17 22:23:12      点击:
消毒方法大体上可以分为物理方法和化学方法两类。物理方法主要有机械过滤、加热、冷冻、辐射、微电解、紫外线和微波消毒等方法;化学方法主要有氯、二氧化氯、臭氧、氯胺、卤素、金属离子、阴离子表面活性剂及其它杀生剂等。化学消毒方法中有关氯、臭氧、二氧化氯以及氯胺的研究及应用最多,近年来由于有关化学消毒副产物的报道的增多和人们对水质标准要求的不断提高,物理消毒方法特别是紫外线消毒引起了专业人士的高度重视。 

1. 氯消毒 

氯与水反应时,一般产生“歧化反应”,生成次氯酸(HOCL)和盐酸(HCL),氯的灭菌作用主要是次氯酸,因为它是体积很小的中性分子,能扩散到带有负电荷的细菌表面,具有较强的渗透力,能穿透细胞壁进入细菌内部。氯对细菌的作用是破坏其酶系统,导致细菌死亡。而氯对病毒的作用,主要是对核酸破坏的致死性作用。 

ZICONGERSHISHIJICHU,LVHUAFAJIUGUANGFANDIYINGYONGYUSHUIXIAODUGONGYI。MUQIAN,LVHUAFAXIAODURENGSHIYINGYONGZUIGUANGDEHUAXUEXIAODUFANGFA,QIZHUYAOTEDIANSHI:

(1) CHULISHUILIANGJIAODASHI,DANWEISHUITIDECHULIFEIYONGJIAODI;

(2) SHUITILVXIAODUHOUNENGZHANGSHIJIANDIBAOCHIYIDINGSHULIANGDEYULV,CONGERJUYOUCHIXUXIAODUNENGLI;

新疆风采18选7 3) LVXIAODULISHIJIAOZHANG,JINGYANJIAODUO,SHIYIZHONGBIJIAOCHENGSHUDEXIAODUFANGFA。 


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新疆风采18选7 WEILEBIMIANYOUHAIXIAODUFUCHANWUDECHANSHENG,CAIQUDEZHUYAOTUJINGYOU:

新疆风采18选7 (1) YUCHULIQUCHUSANLUJIAWANQIANQUWU(ZHUYAOSHIFULISUANHEFUZHISUAN);

(2) CAIYONGDAIYONGXIAODUJIHUOXIAODUFANGFA,JINNIANLAIDUIYONGCHOUYANG、ERYANGHUALVHELVANDAITILVWEIXIAODUJIJINXINGLEDALIANGDEYANJIU。 


2.臭氧消毒 

臭氧是强氧化剂,臭氧化和氯化一样,既起消毒的作用,也起氧化作用,但是臭氧的消毒能力和氧化性都比氯强,能氧化水中的有机物,并能杀死病毒、芽孢及细菌。臭氧都是在现场用空气或纯氧通过臭氧发生器制取,产率分别为1%-3%和2%-6%。 

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(1) CHOUYANGXIAODUFANYINGXUNSU,SHAJUNXIAOLVGAO,TONGSHINENGYOUXIAODIQUCHUSHUIZHONGCANLIUYOUJIWU、SE、XIU、WEIDENG,SHOUPHZHI、WENDUDEYINGXIANGHENXIAO。

(2) CHOUYANGNENGGOUJIANSHAOSHUIZHONGTHMsDENGLUDAIWANLEIXIAODUFUCHANWUDESHENGCHENGLIANG。

(3) CHOUYANGXIAODUKEYIJIANGDISHUIZHONGZONGYOUJILUHUAWUDENONGDUSUIRANCHOUYANGXIAODUBENSHENBUCHANSHENGLUDAIWANHEZONGYOUJILU,DANSHISHENGCHENGDEQITAXIAODUFUCHANWURUQUAN、TONG、CHUNDENGRUOJINGLVHUA,HUICHANSHENGSANLUJIAWAN。

JUBAODAO,ZAISHIJIEGEZHONGSHUITIZHONGYIJIANCECHUDEYOUJIHUAHEWUGONGYOU2221ZHONG。CHOUYANGNENGHEDUOZHONGYOUJIWUFANYING,SHENGCHENGYIXILIEZHONGJIANCHANWU,DATIKEFENWEIYOUJIFUCHANWUHEWUJIFUCHANWULIANGLEI。YOUJIFUCHANWUYIJIAQUANWEIDAIBIAO,YOUBAODAOSHUOJIAQUANSHIZHIAIWUZHI。ZUISHOUGUANZHUDEWUJIFUCHANWUSHIXIUSUANGEN,GUOJIAIYANJIUBUMEN(IARC)JIANGXIUSUANGENFENLEIWEIZHIAIXING2B,JIKENENGZHIAIWU。YINWEICHOUYANGZAISHUIZHONGDERONGJIEDUJIXIAO,QIEYIFENJIE、WENDINGXINGCHA,JIHUMEIYOUCANYUXIAODUNENGLI,SUOYIPUBIANJIANGCHOUYANGYUQITAXIAODUJILIANHESHIYONGZUOWEIKONGZHITHMsDENGYOUHAIXIAODUFUCHANWUDEYOUXUANFANGFA。JU1982NIANDEBAODAO,QUANSHIJIECAIYONGCHOUYANGHUACHULIDESHUICHANGZAI1100ZUOYISHANG,QIZHONGYONGCHOUYANGZUOWEIYIXIAODUJIDE,CHUOUZHOUYOUSHAOSHUWAI,MEIGUOHEJIANADAJINGEYOUYIZUO,QITADOUFUYILVHUOLVANXIAODU,YIBAOZHENGSHUIZHONGDESHENGYUXIAODUJI。LINGWAIYOUYUCHOUYANGWENDINGXINGCHARONGYIFENJIEWEIYANGQI,GUBUNENGPINGZHUANGZHUCUNHEYUNSHU,BIXUXIANCHANGZHIBEIJISHISHIYONG,SHEBEITOUZIDA,DIANHAODA,CHENGBENJIAOGAO;YUNXINGGUANLIBIJIAOFUZA。 


3. 二氧化氯消毒 

二氧化氯也是一种强氧化剂,其氧化能力是氯的25倍,消毒能力仅次于臭氧,高于氯。1944年,美国的尼亚加拉大瀑布水厂为消除藻类繁殖所产生的气味,率先采用二氧化氯消毒饮用水获得成功。二十世纪七十年代逐渐作为常用消毒剂,欧美许多国家将二氧化氯用于各种水处理。试验表明,二氧化氯在控制THMs的形成和减少总有机卤方面,与氯相比具有优越性,二氧化氯与水中的腐殖酸和富里酸等腐殖质都不会生成THMs,即使在饮水消毒过程中,投加少量的二氧化氯,也能有效地抑制THMs的生成。二氧化氯是广谱型消毒剂,对水中的病原微生物包括病毒、芽孢、真菌、致病菌及肉毒杆菌均有很高的灭活效果,有剩余消毒能力,二氧化氯对孢子和病毒的灭活作用均比氯有效,并且在高PH值与含氨的水中灭菌效果不受影响。另外,二氧化氯去除水中的色度、嗅、味的能力也较强。制备二氧化氯的起始原料有氯酸钠和亚氯酸钠,具体选用取决于二氧化氯的使用量。在水处理领域,二氧化氯的使用量一般不大,一般都由亚氯酸钠与氯反应制备,因亚氯酸钠不能贮存,必须现场制取及时使用,且亚氯酸钠价格昂贵,成本较高。当反应不完全时,自由性氯同样会与有机物反应,有可能生成THMs。加入到水中的二氧化氯有50~70%转变为ClO2-和ClO3-,很多实验表明ClO2-和ClO3-对红细胞有损害,可引起高铁血红蛋白血症,对碘的吸收代谢有干扰,还会使血液胆固醇升高。 


4. 氯胺消毒 

LVANXIAODUBILVXIAODUYOUYIXIASANGEYOUDIAN:

(1) JIANSHAOLEXIAODUGUOCHENGZHONGTHMsDECHANLIANG;

(2) KEYIWEICHIJIAOZHANGSHIJIAN,NENGYOUXIAODIKONGZHISHUIZHONGCANYUXIJUNFANZHI;

(3) BIMIANYOULIXINGYULVGUOGAOSHICHANSHENGDECHOUWEI。LVANXIAODUYIBANSHIXIANJIAAN,CHONGFENHUNHEHOUZAIJIALV。RUOXIANJIALVHOUJIAAN,ZENANYIKONGZHICHANSHENGTHMsDENONGDU。LINGWAI,RUGUOJIALVHENJIUHOUCAIJIAAN,JIUHUIBIANCHENGYIZIYOUXINGYULVWEIZHUYAOXIAODUJI,LVANWEIFUZHUXIAODUJIDEQINGKUANG。LVANXIAODUDEQUEDIANSHI:XUYAOJIAOZHANGDEJIECHUSHIJIAN;YOUYUXUJIAANCONGERSHICAOZUOFUZA。LVANDESHAJUNXIAOGUOCHA,BUYIDANDUZUOWEIYINYONGSHUIDEXIAODUJISHIYONG。DANRUOJIANGQIYULVJIEHESHIYONG,JIKEYIBAOZHENGXIAODUXIAOGUO,YOUKEYIJIANSHAOSANLUJIAWANDECHANSHENG,QIEKEYIZAIYANZHANGPEISHUIGUANWANGZHONGDEZUOYONGSHIJIAN。 


上述水处理中常用的四种消毒剂中,臭氧的杀菌能力最高,但是臭氧本身极易分解,消毒无持久性;二氧化氯既有相当强的杀菌能力,又具有相当好的持久性;氯对细菌有很强的灭活能力,但对病毒的灭活能力差,对芽孢无灭活能力;氯胺虽然持久性最强,但杀菌作用不如氯,一般不作单一的消毒剂。研究表明:在PH6~9时,四种消毒剂灭活效率的优先次序为:臭氧>二氧化氯>氯>氯胺;而稳定性的优先次序则为:氯胺>二氧化氯>氯>臭氧。 

5. 紫外线消毒 

SUIRANCHUANTONGDEHUAXUEXIAODUFANGFAZAIJISHUIHEWUSHUICHULIZHONGBEIPUBIANCAIYONG,DANSHIYOUYUXIANGSHUIZHONGTOUJIAHUAXUEXIAODUJIHUODUOHUOSHAOHUICHANSHENGYOUHAIDEXIAODUFUCHANWU,GUANGDASHUICHULIJIEDERENSHIBAMUGUANGJIZHONGDAOZIWAIXIANXIAODUFASHANG。 


GENJUSHENGWUXIAOYINGDEBUTONG,JIANGZIWAIXIANANZHAOBOZHANGHUAFENWEISIGEBUFEN:ABODUAN(UV―A),YOUCHENGWEIHEIBANXIAOYINGZIWAIXIAN,BOZHANGFANWEIWEI400nm~320nm;BBODUAN(UV―B),YOUCHENGWEIHONGBANXIAOYINGZIWAIXIAN,BOZHANGFANWEIWEI320nm~275nm;CBODUAN(UV―C),YOUCHENGWEIMIEJUNZIWAIXIAN,BOZHANGFANWEIWEI275nm~200nm;DBODUAN(UV―D),YOUCHENGWEIZHENKONGZIWAIXIAN,BOZHANGFANWEIWEI200nm~10nm。SHUIXIAODUZHUYAOCAIYONGDESHICBODUANZIWAIXIAN,JICBODUANZIWAIXIANHUISHIXIJUN、BINGDU、YABAOYIJIQITABINGYUANJUNDEDNASANGSHIHUOXING,CONGERPOHUAITAMENDEFUZHIHECHUANBOJIBINGDENENGLI。 


新疆风采18选7 DALIANGDEYANJIUHESHIYANZHENGMING,ZIWAIXIANDUISHUIDEXIAODUMIEJUNZHUYAOSHITONGGUOZIWAIXIANDUIWEISHENGWUDEFUSHE,SHENGWUTINEIDEHESUANXISHOULEZIWAIXIANDEGUANGNENG,SUNSHANGHEPOHUAILEHESUANDEGONGNENGSHIWEISHENGWUZHISI,CONGERDADAOXIAODUDEMUDE。SHENGMINGKEXUEJIESHILEHESUANSHIYIQIESHENGMINGTIDEZUIJIBENWUZHIHESHENGMINGJICHU。HESUANSHIYIZHONGSHENGWUGAOFENZIHUAHEWU,SHIYOUXUDUOGEBUTONGDEHEGANSUANTONGGUOLINSUANERZHIJIANLIANJIEERCHENG。HESUANGENJUZUCHENGDEBUTONG,FENWEIHETANGHESUAN(RNA)HETUOYANGHETANGHESUAN(DNA)LIANGDALEI,QIGONGTONGDIANSHIYOULINSUANERZHIJIANANPIAOLINGYUMIDINGJIANJIPEIDUIDEYUANZEERLIANJIEQILAIDEDUOHEGANSUANLIAN。HESUANCUNZAIYUYIQIESHENGWUDEXIBAONEI,DUISHENGWUDEXINCHENDAIXIE、YICHUAN、BIANYIDENGSHENGMINGGUOCHENGQIZHEJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG。WEISHENGWUSHOUDAOLEZIWAIXIANFUSHE,XISHOULEZIWAIXIANDENENGLIANG,SHIJISHIHESUANXISHOULEZIWAIXIANDENENGLIANG。DNAHERNADUIZIWAIXIANDEXISHOUGUANGPUFANWEIWEI240nm~280nm,DUIBOZHANG260nmDEXISHOUDADAOZUIDAZHI。ZIWAIXIANNENGGOUGAIBIANDNAHERNAZHONGDEHANDANZAHUAN,YIDAOZHIXINGCHENGXINDEJIANJIEFENZI。ZIWAIXIANDUIHESUANDEZUOYONGKEDAOZHIJIANHELIANDEDUANLIE、GUJIANJIAOLIANHEXINGCHENGGUANGHUACHANWUDENG。ERJUTIDEXINGCHENGPOHUAILEMIDINGYUPIAOLINGDEZHENGCHANGPEIDUI,GAIBIANLEDNADESHENGWUXUEHUOXING,SHIWEISHENGWUZISHENBUNENGFUZHI,ZHEIJIUSHIWEISHENGWUZUIZHONGYAODEZIWAIXIANSUNSHANG,YESHIZHISIXINGSUNSHANG。DALIANGYANJIUZHENGSHI,MIDINGERJUTIDEZENGJIAYUXIJUNSIWANGLVYOUZHIJIEDEZHENGBIGUANXI。 


ZIWAIXIANYIBANYOUCHUANTONGDEDIYAGONGDENGZHIQU,DANSHIXIANZAIYEYOUYIXIEDIFANGSHIYONGGAOQIANGDUDIYAGONGDENGHEZHONGYAGONGDENG,DUIYUMAICHONGZIWAIDENGYEYOUDALIANGDEYANJIUWENXIAN。BULUNNAYIZHONGZIWAIDENGDOUSHIJIYUXIANGTONGDEWULIXIANXIANG,YOUYINGGUANGDENGNEIGONGDENGLIZIQUFANGDIANSHISHIFANGCHUDIANCISHEXIAN。 


紫外线消毒法由自身的工艺原理决定其与化学消毒法相比具有如下缺点:紫外线的灭菌作用只在其辐照期间有效,所以被处理的水一旦离开消毒器就不具有残余的消毒能力,容易遭受二次污染,并且既使一个细菌未被灭活而进入后续系统,就无法阻止其粘附在下游管道表面并繁衍后代;只有吸收紫外线的微生物才会被灭活,因此对于悬浮固体很多水质较差的水例如污水,由于悬浮固体可以庇护微生物使其免遭伤害,消毒效果很难保证;细菌细胞在紫外线消毒器中并没有被去除,而是被转变为发热原,被杀死的微生物和其它污染物一道成为生存下来的细菌的食物。但是紫外线消毒法同时具有很多化学法无法替代的优点:在一些产业中例如水产养殖和食品工业等,不需要化学消毒剂的持续性,否则会由于化学药剂的影响造成水生物死亡,食品中产生嗅味等副作用,况且氯化消毒会形成三卤甲烷等有害的消毒副产物;在一些生物技术例如发酵中,需要对水进行消毒后接种工艺需要的菌种,这样持续性的消毒效果显然是不需要的;在循环水系统中,经常使用氯消毒会造成腐蚀问题,例如游泳池,还有在石油开采的地下水回灌中,如果采用化学药剂消毒,细菌容易产生抗药性而在土壤中继续繁殖从而堵塞地层,形成二次污染;消毒速度快,效率高,占地面积小;设备操作简单,便于运行管理和实现自动化等,近年来用于水处理的紫外线消毒设备逐渐得到广泛的应用。 


目前国外对紫外线消毒的研究和应用较多,并且有很多污水厂将原有的氯化消毒改造成紫外线消毒。国内研究,生产和应用紫外线消毒器者为数尚少。沈阳建筑工程学院的傅金祥教授带领的课题组,天津大学的顾平等人对紫外线消毒给水污水进行了实验研究。多元水环保技术产业(中国)有限公司和福建新大陆等厂商研制生产紫外线消毒器,并有一定的应用。烟台市套子湾污水处理厂和上海闵行水质净化厂采用了紫外线消毒工艺,分别对工业回用水和排入黄浦江的污水进行消毒。 


6. 结论 
化学消毒方法固然在目前的水处理领域占有重要的地位,但是随着人们对水质标准要求的提高和消毒副产物研究的不断深入,以及紫外线消毒机理的深入揭示,紫外线技术的不断发展以及消毒装置在设计上的日益完善,紫外线消毒法有望成为代替传统的化学消毒法的主要物理消毒方法之一。 

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